For parents of kids with disabilities, virtual learning presents a new set of challenges. Because many students receive additional attention and hands-on support from their special-education teachers, emulating that environment at home is nearly impossible. To help parents and caregivers who may be feeling frustrated with virtual or hybrid learning, we asked experts for their best tips for helping students with disabilities learn at home.
1. Create a Visual Schedule
Understandably, kids with disabilities may take a longer time to adjust to learning at home. If your child has difficulty focusing or is easily overwhelmed by a weekly schedule, try laying out each day's classes in an easy-to-understand format.
"For children who are following the hybrid learning model, remembering what the schedule looks like from week to week can be anxiety-provoking," explained Dr. Liz Nissim Matheis, a psychologist and founder of Psychological & Educational Consulting and a parent to a child with ADHD and anxiety. "If your child's schedule looks anything like my son's, it rotates every day with his morning and afternoon classes being swapped."
To help students adjust to these changes, Dr. Matheis suggests setting up your child's daily schedule in plain view so it can be referenced whenever needed. "Set up a whiteboard or a poster board with your child so that he knows what his schedule will look like from day to day," she said.
2. Declutter Your Kid's Space
For children who have attention disorders, keeping the distractions to a minimum is key. Because students have easier access to things like video games and cell phones, it's important to eliminate temptations as much as possible.
"If your child is working in his room, this may be a good time to look around and declutter the space," Dr. Matheis said. "Put away all the items that could serve as distractors, or at least keep them out of sight. For example, if your son's Nintendo Switch is within sight, he may want to reach for it when he's feeling overwhelmed or bored with an assignment. Place items within drawers or bins under the bed or in the closet to create a visually under-stimulating environment. If possible, place your child's desk against a wall and avoid windows, as they also serve as distractors."
3. Give Direct Instructions
Setting expectations for your kids is imperative. However, parents should do so in a way that's easy for children to understand. To help students with disabilities stay on top of their tasks, parents should consider giving direct, clear instructions for each task.
"Children who have processing difficulty may have a lower capacity for taking in information, which can instigate anxiety and manifest itself as a meltdown or anger," Dr. Matheis said. "As a result, you would give one direction at a time — which allows the child to process and follow through — before giving the next bit of information or direction. This keeps anxiety low and builds self-esteem."
4. Be Flexible With How and When Your Kid Learns
Sitting still for long periods of time and focusing on a screen are often challenges for kids with disabilities. Joanne Connolly, a special-education teacher in Pennsylvania, suggests encouraging students to utilize weighted lap pillows or blankets, seat cushions, or flexible seating options to keep them engaged. "Let your child hold a stuffed animal during live lessons," she said. "Some of our youngest learners do best sitting on their parents' lap."